2021 Online, In the cloud

Poster: Drug/Disease modeling - Paediatrics

III-16 Population pharmacokinetic study to evaluate dosing strategies of imipenem in neonates and infants

(1) Aline Fuchs, (2) Eric Giannoni, (1,3) Monia Guidi, (4) Laurent A. Decosterd, (5) Oscar Marchetti, (6) Marc Pfister, (1,7) Nicolas Widmer, (1) Thierry Buclin, (1,3) Chantal Csajka

(1) Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Service of Biomedicine, Department of Laboratory, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland, (2) Service of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Lausanne University, Lausanne, Switzerland, (3) School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland, (4) Innovation and Development Laboratory, Service of Biomedicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland, (5) Service of Infectious Disease, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland, (6) Department of Paediatric Clinical Pharmacology, University Children’s Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland, (7) Pharmacy of Eastern Vaud Hospitals, Vevey, Switzerland

Objective: Imipenem is a broad spectrum antibiotic used to treat severe infections in critically ill patients. Imipenem pharmacokinetics (PK) was evaluated in a cohort of neonates treated in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Lausanne University Hospital. The objective of our study was to identify key demographic and clinical factors influencing imipenem exposure in this population.

Method: PK data from neonates and infants with at least one imipenem concentration measured between 2002 and 2013 were analyzed applying population PK modeling methods. Measurement of plasma concentrations were performed upon the decision of the physician within the frame of a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) programme. Effects of demographic (sex, body weight, gestational age, postnatal age) and clinical factors (serum creatinine as a measure of kidney function; co-administration of furosemide, spironolactone, hydrochlorothiazide, vancomycin, metronidazole and erythromycin) on imipenem PK were explored. Model-based simulations were performed (with a median creatinine value of 46 μmol/l) to compare various dosing regimens with respect to their ability to maintain drug levels above predefined minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for at least 40 % of the dosing interval.

Results: A total of 144 plasma samples was collected in 68 neonates and infants, predominantly preterm newborns, with median gestational age of 27 weeks (24 – 41 weeks) and postnatal age of 21 days (2 – 153 days). A two-compartment model best characterized imipenem disposition. Actual body weight exhibited the greatest impact on PK parameters, followed by age (gestational age and postnatal age) and serum creatinine on clearance. They explain 19%, 9%, 14% and 9% of the interindividual variability in clearance respectively. Model-based simulations suggested that 15 mg/kg every 12 hours maintain drug concentrations over a MIC of 2 mg/l for at least 40 % of the dosing interval during the first days of life, whereas neonates older than 14 days of life required a dose of 20 mg/kg every 12 hours.

Conclusion: Dosing strategies based on body weight and post-natal age are recommended for imipenem in all critically ill neonates and infants. Most current guidelines seem adequate for newborns and TDM should be restricted to some particular clinical situations.

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